Phenylpiracetam is a relatively novel nootropic drug, also known as Phenotropil and Carphedon. As the name indicates, the compound is actually a phenylated analog of piracetam. It was originally developed in Russia in 1983, and is prescribed as a drug over there. The drug was not known outside the Russian Federation till mid of 2010s, when its use lead to disqualification of Olga Pyleva and Roman Usov (Olympic athletes) after the positive dope test. The drug is banned by World Anti-Doping Agency because it improves physical strength and enhance the sports performance even in extreme weather conditions. Besides this, the drug is commonly used for cognitive enhancement, psycho stimulation and improving locomotion.


The addition of a phenyl group to piracetam, makes it capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier easily. As a result, even smaller doses of phenylpiracetam can be more effective than higher doses of other nootropic drugs. For example, it is about 30-60 times more potent than that its parent piracetam with same weight. The benefits associated with phenylpiracetam are similar to those of piracetam. It is expected that the users of phenylpiracetam can attain increased memory, efficient recall, improved learning capacity, better focus as well as greater mental energy. There exists preliminary studies, suggesting that the drug can be effective in cognitive decline due to dementia or stoke. It is also assumed that the drug can be helpful in overcoming stress and anxiety. In addition, the drug is popular among bodybuilders for increasing stamina and endurance [1].


As the drug was initially not known to the globe except Russia, the clinical studies are either not available, or these are in Russian language. Especially there is lack of studies for prolonged use of the drug so very little is known about dependency issues, withdrawal symptoms or about any complications for prolonged use. It is generally suggested that this supplement should be taken on need basis (take as you need, and stop when the need fulfil). As most of the data about the drug is unpublished, and some facts are claimed by the manufacturers only. For example, it is claimed that the drug has 100% bioavailability and saturation is achieved within one hour. Manufacturers also claim that phenylpiracetam is indigestible, thus it is either excreted without any change, or is absorbed integrally to the blood stream. This suggests that the compound is not a pro-drug for any other chemicals.


Anecdotally, Phenylpiracetam is taken at a dosage of 100-200mg acutely, and this dose is taken 2-3 times per day (totaling a daily range of 200-600mg). The optimal dosage is dependent on each individual and should be slowly groped.


It is reported that administering the drug can cause difficulty in sleeping, so it should be taken early in the day, and not in evening or late afternoon. There is very little data on side effects, but there can be adverse effects with higher doses. One should consult a specialist for recommendation of dose, according to his/her own medical conditions and projected benefits.


Phenylpiracetam is not recommended to be used by pregnant or lactating women as well as children. Patients with kidney or liver disorders should also be careful before taking Phenylpiracetam.


[1] - The phenotropil treatment of the consequences of brain organic lesions - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16447562


Bemethyl, also commonly referred to in literature as bemitil, is a synthetic actoprotector which is also antihypoxant (combating conditions of hypoxia), antioxidant, and antimutagenic. Certified in Ukraine as a dietary supplement, bemethyl is commonly used in preparing for international competitions by Ukrainian national sport teams.[1] Bemethyl is formulated as a hydrobromide salt. Its parent compound is 2-ethylsulfanyl-1H-benzimidazole.[2]


Bemethyl was developed in the 1970s by the Department of Pharmacology of the St. Petersburg State Military Medical Academy under the direction of Professor Vladimir Vinogradov. Professor Vinogradov and his research team earned the USSR State Prize for this accomplishment.[1] First used with Soviet cosmonauts, Bemethyl was also used to prepare athletes of the USSR national team for the Moscow 1980 Olympic Games. In the 1990s, bemethyl saw use as a basic medicinal agent in many of the corps of the Soviet and Russian armies, including Soviet troops in Afghanistan, as bemethyl facilitated increased endurance for soldiers over long marches, as well as an enhanced work capacity and stability to hypoxia and high temperatures. Bemethyl was also used to enhance the physical and mental capacities of workers deployed in the wake of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster


Bemethyl is primarily classified as an actoprotector; a synthetic adaptogen with significant capacity to increase physical performance. Bemethyl also has a positive effect on metabolic processes, allowing adaptation to conditions causing frequent hypoxia, and the obtained effect is long-lasting and also occurs after the end of dosage. Bemethyl has been shown to preserve both physical and mental capacity in high-altitude, low-oxygen environments, particularly by its effect in helping control excess serum levels of cholesterol and bilirubin, which are known to have negative effects especially during adjustment to high-altitude environments. Bemethyl has also been shown to prevent permanent hearing loss and facilitate recovery of hearing after mine-explosion trauma, when treatment is initiated immediately after injury.


Bemitil should be taken orally after meals. The standard dosage is 250 mg twice a day. If necessary, the dosage can be increased up to 750 mg (500 mg in the morning and 250 mg in the daytime) for adults with body mass below 80 kg, and up to 1000 mg (500 mg twice a day) for adults with body mass above 80 kg. Duration of the treatment course should not exceed 5 days to prevent cumulation of the drug; the interval between treatment courses is 2 days. The number of courses depends on the therapeutic effect and is usually 2-3 courses. To increase working performance in extreme conditions 500–750 mg of the drug should be taken one hour before the expected load. If these conditions are maintained, the second dose of 250 mg can be taken in 6-7 hours. The maximum daily dosage should not exceed 1500 mg and 1000 mg the day after. In order to maintain a high level of performance for a long time and to improve the adaptation processes, Bemitil can be prescribed 250 mg twice a day. The maximum duration of such a therapy is two 5-day courses with a 2-day break in-between. If the patient has severe hepatic disorders (cirrhosis, acute hepatitis of the viral etiology, toxic changes in the liver, etc.), the drug should be taken with caution and in lower doses.


Phenibut is a derivative of GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid), a naturally occurring neurotransmitter. Phenibut is usually marketed as “Noofen” and “Citrocard” and is considered a tranquilizer. It was discovered in Soviet Union during the 1960s. Phenibut is sold as a nutritional supplement in the USA while in Russia it is used as medication to treat different kinds of conditions including posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, asthenia, insomnia, alcoholism, stuttering, and vestibular disorders.


Phenibut is a close structural analogue of GABA. Similarly to GABA, phenibut is not able to cross the blood-brain barrier. The addition of a so called phenyl ring to phenibut enables this ability. Unlike other supplements for lowering stress levels that typically cause drowsiness, phenibut is adversely not affecting performance.


Based on its benefits, phenibut is categorized as a nootropic, antidepressant, neuroprotective and cardio-protective supplement. As these benefits are similar to other nootropic supplements, phenibut stands out by its anesthetic effects. Where other supplements induce a stimulatory effect, phenibut facilitates muscle relaxation, which in turn leads to a sound sleep. So phenibut acts as a tranquilizer for those who are unable to sleep due to depression, anxiety, fear of other psychic disorders.


Low dosages are considered safe, and common side effects include lightheadedness, headache, fatigue, nausea, dehydration etc. Dehydration is a common side effect where users are suggested to drink plenty of water starting the very first day. In extreme cases, unconsciousness or memory loss may be a potential hazard, especially when using higher dosages. To avoid any complications, a consultation at a physician on dosage and scheduling, before using phenibut, is recommended.


Withdrawal symptoms can occur after prolonged usage with high dosages. Withdrawal symptoms include irritation, nausea, lack of appetite, sleeplessness, restlessness etc. One alleged solution is to withdraw steadily with decreasing dosages. Special precaution must be taken pregnant or lactating women administering phenibut as very little data is available on its side effects in such circumstances. It is usually not recommended to combine phenibut with other GABAergic drugs.


Phenibut and muscle relaxation https://books.google.es/books?id=vI6oBgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&hl=de&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

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